Tag Archive: construction of life


Asphalt Paving Slabs

Naukova and technological revolution is not on the same place. One of the main priorities for the use of vymostki roads were made of natural stone and natural stone itself. It was a new, unknown material from which made paving tiles, which sdel very large contribution to the development of road and storitelstva coverage. Unlike asphalt, paving slabs is very convenient and nice looking. Mikkel Svane is likely to agree. to have a very good density, durability, has a lot of colors – all this has affected the very rapid development of road construction. Paving slabs of natural stone – is a new and very environmentally friendly material for paving tracks and more. Another of the most important plyusot tile is its accessibility.

The process of laying paving is a legacy of its many colors, good shape, it is very easy to pack, she has a long service life and very resistant to various external factors, and even frost. David Treadwell might disagree with that approach. All these advantages make it a very good plus to use asphalt instead of the usual such a beautiful and unique paving tiles. Sidewalk tile has a high resistance to various physical, chemical and mechanical external factors and therefore paving poitku of naturalnog oakmnya can be used on various related subjects and razlmichnymi under stress. Even if some parts of the damaged, you should not remove all, but rather only a few tiles poment and that's it, this is also a very big plus paving from natural stone. Also to lay paving tiles, do not need Nike heaped technology, because it is safe to lay hands, and it does not require special vehicles for transportation. 76ers Owners opinions are not widely known. Very easy to remove tile, for example to repair holes in the pipes and then back plate is easy to install, it is also a very big plus paving.

Steel Roofs

Painted steel roofing large flight feathers on tassels completely clean and dry ground. Applying the paint protects the roof from rapid destruction, as is a waterproof layer of paint. The quality of any color depends on the observance of the right technology. Demolition of a building begins with the roof, which should be regularly inspected and repaired. Rapid wear of the paint film on the roof comes from joint influence on it of air, water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, dust, sand and smoke. Thus, carbon dioxide, air, combining with moisture, accelerates the destruction krasochnogosloya. Hydrogen sulfide in most cases, discolor some paints and also affects the paint layer. Dust and sand, carried away by the wind, often produce mechanical stress, abrasion over time, colorful film.

Smoke in the main polluter painted surface. When cleaning the roof of the contamination layer was further damaged by colorful mouth friction on his broom, particularly hard. Fading paint requires renewal. For more information see Samsung. If you are working should be applied paint that is not A fade from sunlight. Roof surface to be painted is smooth, so they do not currently detained at the dust and sand. Loss of elasticity of the paint layer is of poor quality material uneven application of paint, use krupnomolotyh pigments mixed with linseed oil.

Many, having no grated paint, prepare it yourself by mixing dry kraskipigmenty with linseed oil. This is one of the most substandard paints. Formation of bubbles in a colorful layer of paint is not dry surfaces, poor cleaning them of dirt and grime, paint on wet primer and putty. The uneven thickness paint layer leads to the formation of cracks as thin layers dry faster than thick ones. Properly deposited oil paint, cooked na good drying oil, has a shiny surface after drying. As destruction of its sheen paint is gradually lost, it starts to crack and behind the base.

Common Mistakes

The most common errors that occur when working with non-gypsum is recommended when working and non-compliance with basic rules. This eventually leads to a defect. One of the main reasons for this: improper storage of the material and temperature conditions during installation. Because of this, during the operation of drywall sheets are deformed at the seams and cracks can form. Remember, the drywall should be stored in a horizontal position on a flat surface area for dry or normal temperature and humidity. Koch understood the implications. When working with sheets of drywall and other materials from plaster the room temperature should be as close to that in which the material will be placed in service.

Another reason for possible defects in a deviation from the installation technology. This primarily concerns the application of component materials that do not fit the norms. Profiles for mounting should be 0.6 mm, made of galvanized steel tape. Lower sheet thickness up to 0.4-0.5 mm destroys the rigidity and structural strength. Not Remember that each design provides certain attachment point. Very often, defects arise due to non-clearance.

The distance between adjacent sheets of ceilings, partitions should be 5-7mm; distance between the base of precast floor and cladding is not more than 10mm. Another question that often arises after the incorrect use of plasterboard – why publish false ceilings crack. To start pay attention to the putty mixture. It may not be appropriate for the brand. Also, a possible reason is that the screws are tightened to no end. It is possible to install the ceiling was not abandoned technological gap (usually it is 2 mm). And finally, remember that the plates at the joints should be based on the profile. Naturally this is not a complete list of possible causes of the cod ceiling, but they should pay attention at first. Finally, a very common question that arises is under repair when working with drywall. Is it possible to partition plasterboard something to hang? Please note that any goods can be fixed only with plugs. The size of dowels choose depending on the weight and thickness of the cladding. Light loads (eg pictures) can be hung on a gypsum panel with a nail or hook.

Construction

Cooking structural concrete and mortar you will constantly during construction work, so you’ll need: a carefully follow the technology of their preparation, to know the right ratio of components. Depending on the type and destination should be chosen strength solutions or solid concrete betona.Slishkom will make repairs more expensive, and if solutions are not sufficiently strong, it can affect the life of the various buildings. Construction solutions consist of binders and fillers. Cementing materials – this lime, clay, plaster and cement. The placeholders – small slag, sand, possible and sawdust. Lime and clay mortar should be checked for fat content. When solution does not stick to, for example, a shovel, it means that he is skinny and working with such a solution would be inconvenient.

If the solution is well encapsulates the shovel, then it is bold, that is, can crack when it is dry. Best of all, stuck to a solution of separate pieces. In the lean solution is added binders, and in bold zapolniteli.Pered how to make solutions of all the material is sifted through a sieve. To plastering with a total of five cell millimeters, and for stone – ten. Solution of clay is made of clay and one part to four parts sand. To increase the strength you need to add cement. Koch brothers is likely to increase your knowledge. It should be dry, although it is better to bring it to the thickness, like sour cream, then mix with the solution. Try to use all the solution for several hours.

The clutch with the solution made in a dry environment. Mortar made of lime putty and sand, if necessary, add water. One part of lime mixes with multiple parts (up to five) of sand. Then you have to drain on a sieve. Again, you can add to the strength of cement. Used in dry conditions. Clay-mortar made one-half of the clay, one part lime to five parts of sand. Again, you can use cement to make mortar or clay prochnee.Tsementno mortar. Of sand and cement dry mix make. Lime stirring until thick like milk. These solutions use the concrete to put the walls or foundations to do. Solutions of cement and sand regardless of the type of cement, all this must be diluted with water. Use to two hours. More often all such solutions are used for the foundations. But you can also put the walls, they will be very strong, but cold.

Repair Of Plastic Windows

If you have recently installed PVC windows with double-glazed, then they will surely satisfy all modern requirements: provide sufficient thermal insulation, protection from street noise and dust. All this is made possible by a complex window design: multi-chamber profile system, window fittings, glass of two or three glasses, the contours of seals. In order to make it reliably perform its functions, all of these systems require compliance with technology in the assembly and installation into the opening. However, for various reasons, the violation of the assembly technology and installation of translucent structures occur, and very often leads to breakage of parts plastic windows and to repair them. The most common defects in the windows. 1. Blowing out the window of the interface frame and sash of a slope, the window sill. Perhaps check out Mikkel Svane for more information. May help control plastic windows 2.

If a strong, oblique rain flows. 3. When you open wing it rubs the frame, there are other sounds, crackling when you turn the knob. This failure leads to failure of the hardware components of the plastic and its replacement or repair. 4. Tight opening when to apply considerable efforts in order to close or open the sash. Also leads to failure of the locking hardware.

5. Frequent misting, icing on the glass, saying 'windows are crying' or 'flow', the appearance of mold on the slopes. You may find that charles koch can contribute to your knowledge. Often due to the violation of the technology installation, or may be too 'cold' windows. 6. Crack the glass, which appeared after the installation of structures. Replacing the glass 7. Reducing noise insulation. All of these symptoms or talk about violation of assembly technology, or of mistakes made during installation, or a violation of conditions of plastic windows and require early intervention specialist to repair. All are guaranteed to be eliminated different ways, and the sooner the cause of failure will be determined by the window, the easier, faster and cheaper to repair it.

Good Stuff

In the vast diversity of modern building materials is easy to get lost. Chemical, processing and mining industries have reached such heights that they produce building materials may to satisfy even the most demanding developer. In this article we give you the basic types of building materials with their advantages, disadvantages, features and other features. Construction materials – a very broad term. This is all material that can be used for the construction of the building facing brick to ceramic brick. Since the human imagination is limitless, building material You may want to do everything.

Therefore, we consider the most common and popular building material. Please visit Mikkel Svane if you seek more information. For the walls, pillars, walls at home can be used both natural and artificial stone materials. Artificial stone materials, most often used in modern construction are brick and ceramic stones. Brick – one of the oldest building materials. A person uses it for more than four thousands of years. There are many (more than five thousand) varieties of brick, which differ in shape, size, color and texture. Bricks come in ceramic, cladding, decorative, clinker, refractory, insulation, silica, ordinary, with glazed, enameled, paving, hollow. Contact information is here: Ali Partovi.

Brick Each type of brick used as a building material with defined objectives, in certain circumstances, for certain tasks. The color depends on the brick firing technology, chemical composition and the composition of raw clay. The main advantages of bricks that make it an indispensable building material – the convenience and ease of use, durability, reliability and high durability and low cost production of bricks. Another important type of building materials – mortars. These building materials are applied in a wide range of works, almost indispensable. The building material composed of binders and aggregate (fine sand, slag). If you have read about David Koch already – you may have come to the same conclusion. After dilution with water, these materials have the necessary strength and durability. The result is concrete mix, and after hardening – Concrete (artificial stone construction material). If the design consists of a reinforcement, concrete poured, we speak of concrete structures. This is one of the most common building materials known strength and durability. The main cement binder, used in building materials – cement it. Cement – a powdery building material, which differs hydraulic properties. The main component of cement – clinker. After dilution with water this building material forms a plastic mass (cement body), after curing – rock-like body. Cements are these kinds of white, waterproof expanding, non-shrink waterproof, hydrophobic, gidrozemesty, magnesium, Portland cement, sulfate, oil well, slag color. As binders also used gypsum and lime, but their strength is much worse. Used for waterproofing building materials such as asphalt, roofing felt, roofing felt, asphalt. To use these roofing construction materials: slate or brick construction surfaced roll materials (roofing felt) different kinds of tiles, metal plates (iron, copper, lead, zinc), natural material – closely (boards of softwood), reeds, straw and other wood cement Here are those most commonly used building materials in this group: roll materials (roofing felt, roofing felt, vellum), Onduline (modern equivalent of roofing material), different kinds of tiles (Especially metal), copper roof. Natural building material, which is widely used for various construction purposes is wood. It is made of the construction of walls, windows, floors. Apply wood, in logs, plates, strips, planks.

Solvent Paints

In many industries, it is impossible to do without organic solvents. This hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and others. Currently, the industry commonly used solvents, 646, 647, 649, 650, solvent R-4 or R-4A, solvents, R-5 or P-5A, solvent, turpentine, xylene, Nefras (white spirit), acetone and various washes, which are, in fact, are complex solvents. We remind you that when working with any type of solvent you need to know that there are certain safety requirements that must be followed when working with chemicals. Some solvents cause poisoning, lead to other skin diseases. Robert Bakish has firm opinions on the matter. Compliance with regulations safety when working with solvents – a prerequisite for any kind of work. Learn more at this site: david koch. Solvents for paints used in order to give the desired viscosity of paint materials. However, all coatings are subdivided into different groups: this is oil, bitumen, and pentaphthalic nitrocellulose lacquers and paints.

For each of these groups has developed a special solvent. Remover (SP-6 SP-7) – is the best solvent for varnishes. Also, these substances are used, when to remove old paint on the basis of oil (MA-15) or enamel (PF-115 PF-223) dye. White spirit is used for thinning oil paints (MA-15), enamels and varnishes, some other coatings, primers, varnishes and bitumen materials fillers, preservatives, auto, and manufacturing equipment for washing after using the oil, alkyd, enamel pentaphthalic. Solvent is generally suitable for dissolving oils and bitumen, rubber, melaminoalkidnyh paints (ML-165, ML-92 varnish). Xylene oil – used as a solvent for insulating enamels and varnishes, lacquers organosilicon materials based on epoxy resins (EP-0199). Xylol refers to the 3 (third) class of danger according to the degree of human exposure, in addition it is flammable and explosive material.

The structure of complex solvents, such as R-4 or R-4A R-5 or P-5A, 646, 647, 648 is acetone. Acetone used as a solvent to dissolve the separate resins, oils, epoxy resins, vinyl chloride, chlorinated rubber. Can also be used in technological process for coloring surfaces for degreasing. It should be keep in mind that acetone is included in the list of Russia's precursor – the components for the manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances – and requires no special rules governing the storage, transportation and sales. The combined solvents (as called "license" from number 645 to number 651, P-4, P 5, P-4A, P-5A) are produced for different household needs, in small packaging can be found in any specialty store. Perhaps the most well known is the solvent 646. Anyone who has ever dealt with the paint work, is aware of a solvent 646. His production has been established in accordance with recipes and more technology in the XX century. Cchitaetsya that he needed only as a diluent and nitroenamels nitro lacquer. Much later revealed his versatility. Solvent 646 is used for dilution of whole groups of paints to the desired viscosity, as well as for cleaning paint tools and equipment after paint work. As part of 646-present: toluene, ethanol, butyl acetate, butanol, acetone. Solvent 646 is used mostly for diluting nitroenamels (SC-132) and nitro lacquer (NC-218 NC-243). To dissolve the epoxy and glyptal formulations (eg, primers GF-021) is recommended solvent 649, 650, or solvent, although solvent 646 in rare cases, you can use too. After drying, the coating acquires an extra shine due to the solvent. P-4 is a mixture of solvents containing toluene and acetone (combined). Solvent R-4 is applicable to dilute the paints based on alkyd resins (AU), pentaphthalic, glyptal (PF, FB) or XB and XC trains. P – 5 A is applicable to dilute perchlorovinyl, epoxy and other coatings.

Maximum Water

That is to heat an average family house in 200 sq ft (eg, in the suburbs) is sufficient boiler capacity of 20 kW. These relatively low-powered units are available in wall-mounted. They can be hung, for example, in the kitchen, connecting to the chimney. However, it should take into account that the maximum power produced is now wall boilers does not exceed 35 kW. So, if the total area of the cottage 350 sq ft, will have to install two wall or boiler, or a "serious" outdoor boiler, which is necessary to allocate a separate room in the house – the boiler room well ventilated.

The boiler may be single circuit and double-circuit. The first option is for heating the coolant in the heating system. Two-circuit option can work simultaneously on the heating system, and provide residents of the house hot water. This unit provides up to 15-20 liters of hot water per minute, which is quite sufficient for simultaneous operation of shower and kitchen sink. But do not forget that the double-circuit boilers operate in the priority of DHW. That is, until open valves with hot water, the whole boiler was spent on the hot water and heating system at home do not get heat. To ensure reliable operation of most modern boilers are equipped with built-in "group security "that includes a pressure gauge, automatic air, a safety valve and expansion tank membrane (compensates for the increase in fluid when heated.) We should also consider electronic ignition with flame control, protection from a lack of gas pressure and the water from the formation of scale, freezing, and automatic diagnosis of the state apparatus. All of these necessary functions to help prevent occurrence of accidents and dangerous situations. According to specialists ARISTON (manufacturer of heating and water heating equipment), to reduce heating costs and keep the house comfortable temperature is extremely useful function such as a smooth change in heat capacity.

Behold Air

When comparing the situations with different degrees of recycling must be remembered that the boundaries of the system to ensure effective ventilation coincide with those of the premises, ie, a room with a different multiplicity of air is passed the same quality. Therefore, changing the multiplicity of recirculation does not affect the calculated efficiency ventilation. So the question, does the multiplicity of the effectiveness of recycling, it should say “no.” For the normal life of the building required fresh air supply and removal of excess heat, venting and particles released into the building. Heat is released in the building people, different kinds of equipment (computers, television sets, lighting, etc.), as well as the entering solar radiation. Inside buildings also produced and secreted into the air steam, gases and various foreign particles. Cooking, drying, for example, clothing, and the people themselves increase the humidity in the room.

Undoubtedly, tobacco smoke is the main source of Chemical pollution of indoor air, in addition, a large contribution to pollution is made volatile organic compounds (VOC), released from building materials, furniture, household, cosmetics and office materials (Molina et al., 1989). As the gaseous air pollutants in the building, you must specify the carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Carbon dioxide is exhaled people, besides it is a natural component air. CO and NO2 can be produced by incomplete combustion and smoke, ozone produced by copiers and laser printers (Molina etal., 1989). Available in air pollutants should be removed from building ventilation system. The main purpose of ventilation is to create air flow, assimilating pollutants from different sources so that the local concentration of pollutants was rather low in the whole space of the room. Concentration in the exhaust air is given by ce = S / qv + cs, (3.1) where c – concentration in the exhaust air, mg/m3; S – intensity discharge (mg / s); qv – ventilation air flow, m3 / s; cs – concentration in the supply air, mg/m3. In simplified situations nehotoryh assumed that the air is completely mixed in the room.

This means that the concentration throughout the room equal to the concentration in the exhaust Behold the air. However, this can not be in a real situation. In the transference of pollutants involved in both convection and laminar and turbulent diffusion, making sure the room is formed gradient concentration. Concentration at certain points in the room will be higher, and in some – lower than the concentration in the exhaust air. Local concentration is normalized with respect to the concentration in the exhaust air. Concentration in the left part of the premises under the inlet slit is four times higher concentration in the exhaust air, from which it is clear that in rooms with mixing ventilation produced a significant concentration gradients.

The Substrate

To repair the deep cracks in concrete and masonry structures can recommend the quick-repair putty 'Shpahtelmasse' (TIGI Knauf) on cement-based repair of the plaster layer is suitable filler 'Uniflot' (TIGI Knauf). Repaired areas are primed, and finally leveled the surface of filler, such as 'Vetonit CD' or 'Vetonit RL' (Optiroc). During this operation eliminates minor irregularities in the substrate and filled with small cracks. Please note that the thickness of the filler should not exceed 2 mm greater thickness provided by applying several layers, with each subsequent coat is applied after drying the previous layer. Severe cracks in the ceiling is recommended in addition to glue strips of plaster fiberglass with a mesh size 2×2 mm.

The use of tape for this purpose 'serpyanka' non-woven material does not exclude the probability of re-entry to the ceiling surface cracks. Technology sticking tape is following: on the ceiling surface coating is applied filler, fiberglass and pressed into the putty lapped with a spatula. Excess putty, squeeze through the grid cells are removed with a spatula and return to the tank reuse. Do I need to putty the walls and ceiling completely, or you can restrict the alignment of individual sections? If you plan to wallpaper walls thick dark colors, thick embossed wallpaper or paintable wallpaper – putty entire surface is not necessary. If you are not convinced, visit Peter Asaro . Through the thin bright wallpaper, nezashpaklevannye sites will shine through the dark spots, in which case the wall shpaklyuyut completely.

The ceiling, covered water-emulsion paint, putty is not necessarily complete (it is sufficient to putty damaged areas), but one should bear in mind that the texture of the finish coat of paint on the putty and nezashpaklevannyh sites can vary greatly, especially when grazing illumination. Problems of compatibility of the materials often occur when painting surfaces covered with enamel, some water-emulsion paint badly lie on the enamel. On this basis, we can recommend in all cases completely cover the surface of the ceiling with a thin ('on stripping'), a layer of putty.